Economy is a field of study that studies the economic performance of a country or state through the use of macroeconomic data. It mainly includes economic concepts like production, consumption, market economies, money and financial flows, government finance, monetary systems, capital movements, investment, productivity and technological developments. Basically, an economy is a space of interaction, specialization, exchange, production and distribution, and consumption of various goods and services by various agents. In this way, it is defines as a socio-economic domain, which focus on the practices, discourses, policies and material exchanges related to the production, utilization and management of economic resources.
The economic activities in an economy refers to the production of goods, services and investments for the overall welfare of human life. It also covers the distribution of income and wealth, production and allocation of wealth and the means to achieving these goals. In the broadest sense, economics deals with the study of how people, individually and collectively, interact to affect the level of economic activity and outcomes. Economic concepts form the foundation of the principles, goals and objectives of a nation’s economy and are used to design and plan the system.
Modern economies face various problems like environmental degradation, resource depletion, currency mismatches, unemployment and social injustice. These issues are resolved through the operation of the economy. There are four major engines of modern economies: industrialization, knowledge economy, finance and technology.
Microeconomics, unlike economics, focuses on the interactions of individuals and groups within an economy. As compared to microeconomics, the scope of economy analysis is relatively smaller, though it can be called as a part of economics. Microeconomics studies the behavior of individuals and firms within a defined environment. Examples of micro-economic processes are marketing, advertising, bargaining, commuting, leisure and production.
macroeconomics studies the overall economic activity of a nation or state. It uses macroeconomic tools to understand how economies are performing relative to one another. Some examples of macroeconomic tools used by economists include indicators, calculators and national accounts. The main economic objectives of macroeconomics are to ensure that the national income, expenses and balance of trade are in equilibrium.
Every country has economic agents or departments. These economic agents play a major role in determining the performance of a country’s economy. There are many economic processes going on at the national level. For instance, governments regulate businesses and financial activities to ensure that they remain within acceptable limits. Economic policies, rules and regulations are implemented to ensure that the distribution of income is fair and equitable. The role of economic agents is thus crucial in ensuring that a country’s economic policy is successful in providing the desired growth and prosperity for all.